Castle Connolly Medical Ltd. is a healthcare research and information company founded in 1991 by a former medical college board chairman and president to help guide consumers to America’s top doctors and top hospitals. Castle Connolly’s established survey and research process, under the direction of an MD, involves tens of thousands of top doctors and the medical leadership of leading hospitals. Castle Connolly’s physician-led team of researchers follows a rigorous screening process to select top doctors on both the national and regional levels. Its online nominations process—located at www.castleconnolly.com/nominations—is open to all licensed physicians in America who are able to nominate physicians in any medical specialty and in any part of the country as well as indicate whether the nominated physicians is, in their opinion, among the best in their region in their medical specialty or among the best in the nation in their medical specialty. Careful screening of doctors’ educational and professional experience is essential before final selection is made among those physicians most highly regarded by their peers. The result: We identify the top doctors in America, providing consumers with detailed information about their education, training and special expertise in our paperback guides, national and regional magazine “Top Doctors” features and online directories. Doctors do not and cannot pay to be selected and profiled as Castle Connolly Top Doctors. Physicians selected for inclusion in this magazine’s “Top Doctors” feature may also appear online at www.castleconnolly.com as Castle Connolly Top Doctors® or as America’s Top Doctors® or America’s Top Doctors® for Cancer. Anesthesiologists (excepting those with additional ABMS Board certification in Pain Management) and Emergency Medicine Physicians are not included in CCML’s Top Doctors database.